This chapter outlines the historical context that motivated the field, including the importance of aesthetics in vernacular architecture, the devaluation of humanistic design principles in mid-20th century construction, and the birth of environmental psychology and evidence-based design movements in response to post-war architectural mass production. It reviews empirical findings that have emerged from research on the neuroscience of architecture, including investigations of aesthetic responses to architectural design features; the potential benefits of biophilic design for stress reduction, health, and wellness; and the impact of sensory features on movement and navigation. The chapter discusses how the probing of specific dimensions of emotional experience in the built environment—including fascination, coherence, and hominess—can promote more evidence-based design practices and foster more human-centered buildings. To give a concrete example of an “aesthetic quality,” one promising category relates to naturalness. Natural environments, as well as naturalistic features of the built environment, promote wellness across a wide range of contexts and populations.