Expertise research is currently in a dynamic phase, with traditional practice-centred theories being replaced by multifactorial models, in which expertise performance is seen to depend on interactions between practice and numerous other variables, as well as an interplay between genes and environment. Research on musicians has been instrumental for this development, and both music and dance have become widely used model domains in research on the neural mechanisms underpinning expert performance in general. Here, I review key results from studies of structural and functional brain correlates of expertise in these two forms of performing art and discuss the findings in the light of recent developments in behaviour genetic studies of expertise.