The introduction situates the book in the context of existing scholarship and outlines its goal to contribute to a renewed understanding of the Isthmo-Colombian Area and its socio-cosmological principles. By focusing on the historicity of area conceptions and the richness of the book’s contributions, it identifies central elements that constitute a flexible and polythetic “Isthmo-Colombian package”. Among these socio-cosmologic elements are distinct interiorities of humans and animals, the continuing importance of the dead, a conception of humans as seeds and plants and a specific form of agricultural hierarchical symbiosis. These elements enter in varying degrees the constitution of local ontologies, located beyond animism and analogism.