This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book explores the extent to which interpreters’ performance can promote or hinder the access of linguistically and culturally diverse patients to the person-centred care principles advocated and promoted by health service providers. It explains student translators’ consultation behaviour in translation, using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods and professional translators’ web-navigating behaviour. The book looks into interpreters’ moderations in interpreting political texts by integrating critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics. It examines how humour was subtitled due to sociocultural considerations and the restrictions of subtitling. The book assesses the potentials of automatic speech recognition for the rendition of numbers in simultaneous interpreting. It introduces some novel discourse-processing methods in statistical machine translation and neural machine translation architectures. The book assesses how interpreter training helped interpreters free themselves from emotional distractions.