This chapter identifies any revealed comparative advantages in the international trade of Central Asian countries and aims to determine the competitive profiles of Central Asian economies in terms of their strengths and weaknesses in trade with the European Union (EU) and China. It describes the question as to what extent the current structure of Central Asian countries' trade with the EU and China corresponds with the competitive profiles of their economies, and the potential areas of cooperation and/or competition of Central Asian countries with the EU and China. The chapter reviews the state of research on the competitiveness of Central Asian countries in international trade. The issue of the competitiveness of the Central Asian countries in international trade from a comprehensive comparative perspective as a whole region is rarely addressed in international economics literature. Both the European Union and China are important trade partners for Central Asian countries.