This chapter focuses on European Union (EU)–China relational dynamics from a regional(ist) perspective. Regionalism theories are useful for scholarly studies of the Belt and Road Initiative, including the initiative's EU–China and Central Asia dynamics. The EU and China are among the world's biggest economic powers and are also each other's biggest partners in trade. The EU's presence in Central Asia is sustained by a multi-faceted normative and institutional framework. The EU has concluded Partnership and Cooperation Agreements (PCAs) with all Central Asian countries except Turkmenistan. The EU has established the post of special representative for Central Asia in 2005. China's involvement in Central Asia has broadened in scope and volume gradually since the early 1990s. Central Asia has experienced up and downs in terms of regional cohesiveness since the early 1990s. The fact that the Belt and Road Initiative explicitly mentions Central Asia as a regional base is important for local actors.