This chapter provides a synopsis of the overarching question of whether or not cooperation between the European Union (EU) and China in the region is possible, and, if so, how. In the current volatile geopolitical context, in which ‘established' and ‘rising' powers are seemingly competing against each other, it is important to look for common ground between the respective actors, which can serve as a basis to establish cooperation and defuse the rising tensions. The EU and China share a strong interest in Central Asia's hydrocarbon resources. ‘Green' or ‘climate cooperation' rather than a scramble for Central Asia would be a much more appropriate approach to the socio-economic and environmental challenges faced by Central Asia in the twenty-first century. The recent developments in light of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic are fuelling the already existing rivalry among great powers.