This chapter has underlined the importance of Russia's perspective in European policy development, underscored the nature of Sino-Russian relations in Central Asia, and suggested a framework for understanding how Russia might react to efforts related to the BRI, including Sino-European coordination. In Central Asia, a region which not only borders China but also serves as a pathway to reach Europe and which has significant development needs, China has become a primary actor. However, China and the European Union are not the only powers in Central Asia notably, Russia is an important player in the region and its interests, and how those might both cooperate and complicate the efforts of other actors, must be taken into account. In particular, Russia is a vital actor in Central Asia; any efforts that the European Union undertakes in the region need to consider Russia's potential reactions.