This chapter offers a case study of professional training at universities and polytechnic institutes in Soviet Lithuania and reveals the popularity of engineering studies among young people of different nationalities. The chapter analyses career patterns of the last generation of Soviet engineers, comparing the situation in the 1970s and 1980s with that of the 1950s and 1960s. Particular attention is paid to the ethnic composition of Soviet engineers and the impact of this on the engineers’ career expectations. What was the educational policy implemented centrally from Moscow as set against that determined by local officials? Did this educational policy result in discrimination or the assimilation of different national groups?