Lava Jato or Operation Car Wash refers to Latin America’s largest corruption scandal to date. Related events began unfolding in Brazil in March 2014. Construction companies were colluding with employees of Brazil’s state-owned oil company to win public works contracts. The oil company’s employees took bribes, while politicians obtained kickbacks as personal gifts or campaign donations. As discussed in this introductory chapter, the present volume examines the Lava Jato scandal and related issues.