This chapter reviews critical research techniques and approaches in urban studies and computer science for considering the inter-relationship between the realms of urban space, local community, and social media. Approaches relating to the investigations of urban space include site visits, documentation, and observation, as well as mapping various types of data. Regarding analyses of the local community, techniques of grounded theory and thematic analysis are described that include semi-structured interviews and participant surveys. The chapter also describes computational approaches of social media using the guided and unguided machine learning frameworks. Methods of data analysis include supervised and unsupervised machine learning, natural language processing, and social network analysis. Different combinations of these methods are used in each of the case study chapters.