The present chapter addresses the legal framework applicable to maritime safety and security in Spain. Since the country is both a Member State of the European Union and a contracting party to the UNCLOS, the SOLAS Convention and the Paris MoU on Port State Control, among others, there is certainly little room for great innovations. However, the fact that Spain borders one of the busiest sea lanes in the world, the Strait of Gibraltar, and that it has suffered several major environmental catastrophes in the past has made public opinion and policy very aware of many issues related to maritime safety and security, e.g. the safety of oil tankers or places of refuge. The resulting regulations, which can be described as quite efficient and up to date, shall be briefly analysed in this chapter.