The Belgian experience with the introduction and implementation of rules on maritime safety is specific due to the division of responsibilities between the federal and regional regulatory levels. This division of responsibilities is the result of major political compromises on the step-by-step reform of the state and, in particular, on the granting of autonomy to the regions, only one of which (Flanders) is located by the sea. While Flanders has obtained a large autonomy with respect to ports and inland navigation, key maritime policy fields such as flag state management, the management of marine areas and maritime safety regulation have largely remained part of the Belgian federal (national) domain. This chapter provides a general insight into the division of powers and the structure of the maritime safety-related laws and regulations.