This chapter begins with a discussion of digital diplomacy and the potential challenges associated with its practical emergence in world politics. The development of diplomacy as an international institution has been discussed in great detail elsewhere and it will suffice to cover the major institutional developments. The first is diplomacy’s historical tendency to limit the number of legitimate actors during diplomatic negotiations. Correspondingly, the difference between traditional forms of public diplomacy and the new digital diplomacy is that the latter envisions a more egalitarian and reciprocal dialogue between the diplomat and her audience. The few empirical studies that exist tend to find little evidence that digital diplomacy is living up to its promise, and suggest that international organisations and ministries of foreign affairs are struggling to facilitate a more dialogic communication style. The chapter develops an ideal-typical classification of traditional diplomacy and digital communication.