The purpose of this chapter is to bring to light the Omani sport context, which will encompass the sport organisational structure, and sport and education development in the history of Oman. However, to understand the current situation of sport in Oman, it is imperative to look at the geographical, historical, sociocultural, political and religious contexts of the country. Identifying the issues affecting the provision and upgrading of sports development work in a country like Oman (particularly in the rapid period of modernisation following the accession of the current Sultan in 1970) is the first step to develop positive proposals and solutions to address the problems. This chapter offers an original insight into the Omani sport fields. It provides an in-depth review of Omani sports history, supported by the events and dates that took place. It starts with a brief introduction to the context of the study – the situational features, sport history and the current organisational structure of the sports field in Oman. The chapter also highlights the current situation of school sport and coach education in Oman. This will lead to an acknowledgement of the multiple problems faced in terms of development and questions that will underpin the research investigation about how different systems and experiences in other countries could be used to improve sport in Oman.