Chapter 1 is a non-spatial introduction to the R language. It presents the fundamentals of operations on the objects, the basic statistics as tables or correlations and regression. It shows how to visualise data – draw scatterplots; line, column and pie charts; boxplots and histograms. It introduces R software together with the RStudio environment and shows how to use help, import data and load additional packages. All code is presented for real examples. This chapter is intended for beginners and newcomers to the R software. All elements presented in this chapter are necessary for efficient work in R but also sufficient for further spatial computations.

This chapter is designed to introduce the reader to the basics of using the R program. It is intended especially for those who have never had to deal with this software. In this chapter, the reader will find general information about R and installation of this software and a bit about its first configuration and the use of various sources of help. Due to the fact that the next part of the book focuses on the use of R for spatial data analysis, the basic packages installed with the program are not enough. This chapter will show how to obtain additional packages and prepare data for use in R. An interesting form of help in using R are the various types of overlays that form the user interface; in particular, it will be proposed to upgrade the basic interface with the RStudio work environment. This is currently the most popular environment used with R. It is not a typical user interface, where code entry is replaced by mouse selection of the appropriate options, but an environment that only facilitates the entering of code, data management and results of calculations and graphical results. The reader will also find in this chapter basic information on writing commands (entering the R language code), using simple functions and loading and displaying data. The information in this chapter will be the basis for all subsequent chapters.