As with most other nationalities, Vietnamese organised crime groups exist in the margins and do not seek publicity, and there are therefore obvious difficulties in conducting research on them within Vietnam. As the economy has developed, there are now multiple drug and sex markets throughout Vietnam which offer exploitation and financial reward for the most vulnerable in society but also the most affluent. It is important not to homogenise a disparate culture, and clearly, the shared mores of Vietnamese organised criminals are partly influenced by the political climate and will be subject to change. As has been alluded to earlier, the genealogy of the Vietnamese diaspora is complicated, and different European countries have different relationships with it. According to Law Enforcement Agency reports from Vietnam, “4,279 cases and 9,304 victims of human trafficking were identified between 2007 and 2016, with the number of cases increasing steadily over this period”.