This chapter examines the general anti–organized crime provisions in the Russian Criminal Code that could potentially be used to prosecute members of transnational criminal groups. It looks specifically at anti–organized crime provisions in three areas frequently said to involve transnational organized entities: human trafficking, money laundering and drug trafficking, and examines the effectiveness of measures undertaken by the Russian state to combat these areas of criminality. Human trafficking is a crime that frequently involves organized criminal groups operating across borders. Comprehensive anti-trafficking legislation remains stalled, in part due to disagreements between ministries and state agencies ‘over which of them would lead anti-trafficking efforts prescribed by the new legislation’, as well as the overall high costs of implementing such legislation.