This chapter surveys the legal standing of Transnational Organized Crime (TOC) in the United Nations Convention against TOC and its Protocols; the United States (US); the European Union (EU); and the United Kingdom (UK). The United Nations Convention – Palermo Convention – against TOC, adopted by General Assembly resolution 55/25 of November 15, 2000, is the principal international instrument against TOC. In general, the Palermo Convention covers four issues: criminalization of various offenses, cooperation, assistance, and implementation. The chapter primarily focuses on the criminalization issue. The US signed the Palermo Convention on December 13, 2000, and ratified it on November 3, 2005. The EU Framework Decision on the Fight against Organized Crime, adopted on October 24, 2008, is the EU’s principal instrument against TOC. The UK signed the Palermo Convention on December 14, 2000, and ratified it on February 9, 2006. Certain law enforcement initiatives against TOC address national security concerns, such as border protection.