The chapter introduces the anthology in three sections. The first section introduces the theme by describing the nature of the varṇa-caste system and highlighting its unjust and exploitative character. The section discusses critically the justification of the varṇa system given in terms of God and the karma doctrine. It refers to the critique of caste found within the Brahmanical/Hindu tradition and its limitations. The second section develops and elaborates on the theme by referring to the chapters in the anthology. It refers to the way the varṇa system was justified in some orthodox philosophical schools and how it was criticized in Jaina and Buddhist literature. It discusses how the caste system was criticized in different schools of Buddhism and also by Dr. Ambedkar, leading to his abandonment of the Hindu fold and adoption of Buddhism. It examines the conflict between Brahmanism and Buddhism and also the influence of Buddhism on the medieval Hindu saints. It explores the way the issues of caste, class and gender are interrelated in Navayāna Buddhism and how the conflict between religion and modernity is reconciled in Ambedkar’s reconstruction of Buddhism. The third section offers a sketch of the chapters in the anthology.