This chapter discusses the Buddha’s attitude towards the caste system based on the Pāli texts. It points out that unlike the Brahmanic order of the varṇas, which gives primacy to Brahmaṇas, the Pāli texts accept an order of varṇas that gives primacy to Kṣatriyas. But there are many suttas that argue the worthlessness of discrimination based on caste. By referring to passages from Pāli canon, this chapter shows that according to the Buddha hierarchy among humans is based on deeds and not birth; that there are no differences among varṇas as among species of animals; that people of all castes are equal and that they lose their caste identity when they enter into Saṅgha. The chapter explains how the Buddha and his disciples questioned Brahmin claims about the hierarchy among varṇas based on birth and the divine origin of the caste system. It also refers to discrepancies found in some suttas regarding the birth of the Buddhas and the Bodhisattvas in specific castes and later degeneration regarding the treatment of the Cāṇḍālas. It concludes by referring to some modern thinkers and scholars who appreciate and discuss the social significance of the Buddha’s anti-caste approach.