This chapter is intended to provide clear guidelines and suggestions for the processes of hazard identification, risk assessment and mitigation. A key priority is the duty of care for the participant or patient, along with the health and safety of the individuals involved in the data collection itself. Safe practices and procedures should underpin all laboratory and field-based activities for several vital reasons. The assessment of risk is the key component of health and safety practice and management. It is about taking reasonable and logical steps to prevent ill health. A full assessment of the first aid needs of specific locations and procedures should be part of a risk assessment. Many institutions that have physiology laboratories will also have a set of standard operating procedures, such as for the procurement of capillary and venous blood samples. Where such documents exist, they should also be used in the development and review of risk assessments.