In the Russian construct, information warfare is not an activity limited to wartime. It is not even limited to the ‘initial phase of conflict’ before hostilities begin, which includes information preparation of the battlespace. For Russia, ‘information confrontation’ or ‘information war’ is a broad and inclusive concept covering a wide range of different activities. The Ukraine conflict provides a clear demonstration of how Russia sees cyber activity as a subset, and sometimes facilitator, of the much broader domain of information warfare. The basic principles of the Russian approach to information security and information threats have been consistently clear from Russian declaratory policy, and the development of their implementation can be traced through a wealth of official Russian documents laying out the approach to information security.