There has been considerable work in the area of talent identification and development since our first edition of this text in 2012. In this chapter, we update the discussion from the previous edition, identifying key generic themes and future directions raised within previous chapters. In particular, we highlight key learnings from the successful initiatives described in Part 2 and describe several areas where further work is needed. We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the broader social implications of a sporting system that increasingly emphasises the identification and selection of young athletes in the absence of compelling evidence that this is helpful or necessary.