Since 2011, there has been a rapid development of rail freight transport links between China and Europe. This commercial initiative has grown rapidly: the number of trains has increased, and the ambitions of both Chinese and European partners are high. Of course, rail remains a small share of the trans-Asian freight market. Trans-Asian freight train development projects have, however, experienced a remarkable boost with the advent of the Belt and Road Initiative. We are witnessing a rapid expansion of volumes, services offered, all accompanied by the design and implementation of new railway infrastructure in Russia, China, Southeast Asia, Iran, or Pakistan. Is the development of these transport axes a lever for development in the regions crossed?