The reluctance of successive Israeli governments to accede to the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), their practice of keeping the matter under constant review and their proposal for the establishment of a nuclear weapon-free zone as a more viable alternative, adequately reflect Israeli thinking and apprehensions. In view of the hostility of most Arab countries towards Israel and their express intention to pursue their goals also by military means, the limitations inherent in the nuclear safeguards system under the NPT assume special importance for Israel. In the view of the Israelis, states such as Libya or Iraq have the licence eventually to opt out of the NPT or just discard their commitments without risking serious international censure. The proposal put forward by Israel to use the agreed procedures for the establishment of a nuclear weapon-free zone was never put to a test.