One of the first social institutions to be affected by conflict and the violence is the family. The insecurity, physical losses, displacement, and violence that many families go through in times of conflict have been documented by many. In recent times, central India (particularly the states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and West Odisha) has emerged as a major centre of internal conflict, where the state, the indigenous people (Adivasis), industrial capital, and left wing extremists are locked in a multi-partite conflict over the sovereignty of the region and control over its rich mineral and forest resources. An attempt is made in this chapter to examine the impact of the conflict on families at many levels including the material aspects of security, education and health of children, as well as the livelihood and nutrition status of people. The emotional and non-tangible historical resources like indigenous culture, and knowledge are also affected, as are established modes of social security. Women and children are often the family members who are the most vulnerable in such situations. While the framework of discussion is not restricted to a particular location, the experiential focus is on the state of Chhattisgarh.