This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book stakes the claim that the ‘myth’ of the Long Peace was precisely that – a modern fable. It argues that far from inspiring a ‘long peace’ the structure of the Cold War and the military competition between the superpowers inspired, underwrote and prolonged many of the conflicts which characterized Third World politics during the 1960s and 1970s. The book discusses notion of the relationship between ‘individual’ or ‘communal’ rights and state rights is a major issue in South-East Asia by Alan Collins. It intends to provide an introduction to some of the main issues that currently dominate the international security agenda.