Neuropsychoanalysis has been described as an interdisciplinary field that attempts to generate links between psychoanalytic schools and the neurosciences, or as an attempt to insert psychoanalysis into the neurosciences. Neuropsychoanalysis has been a key actor in bringing emotion into the mind–brain debate, and its main contributions can be described as both theoretical and technical. The field of affective neuroscience has also been influenced by ideas derived from neuropsychoanalysis. This chapter summarises the methodological advances and importance of the case study approach in neuro-psychology and neuropsychoanalysis, while emphasising that is far from being the only tool needed in the development of a coherent account of the mind–brain. It offers evidence to demonstrate that this approach is of special importance when exploring emotional and motivational aspects of the mind, by virtue of its appropriateness in capturing its subjective aspect, or the “view from within”.