Phenomenology and the cognitive sciences (the sciences of the mind, including psychology, neuroscience, and linguistics, among other disciplines) have a long history of interaction. Husserl and his successors spoke at length about the relationship between phenomenology and the psychology of their day. In the 1950s phenomenological approaches to psychology and social science were established. Phenomenology was not a major source of influence on psychology in the middle of the 20th century. Behaviorism had taken root in academic psychology, and consciousness was officially verboten among serious psychologists. However, phenomenological investigation did persist in various forms, even within psychology. Naturalized phenomenology in its contemporary sense emerged in the late 1990s, in two distinct but complimentary ways. A first group of theorists explicitly drew on the phenomenological tradition, from a naturalistic perspective. Secondly, consciousness studies—which also studies consciousness in an interdisciplinary way, but without tracing its lineage to phenomenologists like Edmund Husserl or Martin Heidegger—emerged in the 1990s.