Importantly, from a European perspective, many of the core issues relating to study abroad (SA) are, in fact, an integral part of the social dynamics of the localities concerned, and this is reflected in some key themes of this book: identity, transnationalism, plurilingualism, the shaping of individual agency by the wider social context. Circulation within Europe involves an intersection between migratory and mobility-related issues and language and education-related issues. This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts covered in the preceding chapters of this book. The book focuses primarily on how today’s students experience SA in Europe, and how they develop in language-related domains. It is clear from several chapters that a sense of self-efficacy is crucial for maximum benefit from the SA experience; for example, it is strongly related to active and motivated learning behaviours, and to engagement in intercultural interaction.