This chapter reviews the theory that explains how pacing is achieved, describes observations of pacing behaviour that have been published, and ends with some practical recommendations for coaches and runners aiming to improve their pacing ability. Although various models have been proposed to explain the regulation of pace during exercise, a common theme is that the process requires central regulation by the brain and nervous system. The remainder of this chapter aims to discuss methods that both elite and recreational runners can use to improve the quality of their strategic and tactical decision-making relating to pacing, and the ability to maintain these strategies during competition itself. An analysis of the men's 800 m event at the 2000 Sydney Olympics provides a striking example of the importance of tactical decision-making, especially in races where all competitors are likely to be closely matched in terms of ability.