The basic assumption behind the analysis presented in this chapter is that changes in the position of a national economy at the international level can be treated as a rough measure of the competitiveness of this economy. The main objective of this chapter is to assess changes in the international competitive position of the Polish economy in relation to the world economy. The analysis period includes the years 1990–2018. Nevertheless, the starting point for the analysis is a reflection on the era of real socialism in Poland, as well as the period that followed immediately afterward, i.e. the systemic transformation. The transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy in Poland was based on the “Big Bang” strategy, which had an impact on the future shape of the competitiveness strategy. This chapter takes into account the fundamental changes and the most important trends in the internationalisation of the Polish economy during the transition period. These modes of internationalisation of the Polish economy appear through the global, relative, and comparative data, cross flows of goods and services, as well as direct investments. The analysis focuses mainly on changes in Poland’s gross domestic product (GDP), Polish exports, and foreign direct investment (FDI) outflows, Polish imports, and FDI inflows. The analysis of statistical data clearly indicates that Poland has made significant progress in the rankings.