Using data from the Kerala Migration Surveys (KMS), this mixed-methods chapter investigates the role of relative deprivation as a driver of international migration in Kerala. The premise for this research derives from certain consumption patterns in Kerala that are referred to by scholars as ‘conspicuous consumption’, a result of the Gulf migration phenomenon witnessed since the 1970s. I first report findings from qualitative interviews and an analysis of movies to inform the hypothesis that the presence of conspicuous consumption, differentially by migration status, influences the tendency to migrate. Further, I analyse the data based on reference groups within the state of Kerala to obtain measures of Individual Relative Deprivation (IRD) and Group Relative Deprivation (GRD), both derived using household consumption expenditures along with two variants of the Yitzhaki index. Each measure is then tested against a robust set of controls against migration on the KMS 2011 and KMS 2016 cross-sections and the 2011–2016 panel, separately. I find that IRD and GRD increase the tendency for international migration when the reference group is religion. I also find the presence of Multiple Relative Deprivation (MRD) among households in Kerala. The Yitzhaki index is also associated with increased emigration for certain religious groups and for specific consumption quartiles.