Tobacco production by smallholders in Zimbabwe has increased since 2000. Although smallholder tobacco production is helping households to derive income, it has negative environmental consequences. This chapter uses the theoretical framework of institutional bricolage which posits that institutions dealing with natural resources management are not necessarily designed for that purpose. It draws information from publicly available policy documents and secondary data from statutory institutions and tobacco industry stakeholders. While an improvement in household income and livelihoods has resulted from tobacco sales, there are some gaps in institutional oversight. The institutions that govern smallholder tobacco production in Zimbabwe need to be restructured to take account of the ecological, economic and social dimensions of the sustainability of the sector.