This chapter starts by considering what a sociology of education encompasses, and the kinds of issues it addresses. It then discusses some key concepts and debates within the sociology of education, making links to both classic texts and contemporary issues, and to some of the themes raised in the opening vignette. Increasingly, the quality of teachers’ work is linked to the test results of their students, and debates rage over the merits and fairness of this, whether such results should also form the basis for levels of teacher pay, and, indeed, whether these results should be made public at all. Education is also a dynamic field. It is embedded in broader social, economic, and political changes, such as changes to the funding and management of public institutions. For many—if not most—of us, educational experiences are powerful ones, and they are a significant part of what shapes us and influences our values and our futures.