Through the socialisation process, we learn the norms or rules of society and the patterns of our culture; we internalise society’s values. A belief that individual and group behaviours are the inevitable result of biology. As sociologists, one should be aware that our views on biology and science are subject to cultural, social, and economic interpretations, reflecting the times in which we live. One of the major themes of this chapter is what it means to be a human being. The incorrect application of Darwin’s evolutionary laws of natural selection to allegedly ‘explain’ social organisation, inequality, and human behaviour. The concept of a person as an individual is increasingly being defined in terms of their genetic makeup—their ‘genetic self’. The chapter addresses the increasingly prominent role given to our biology—specifically our genes and deoxyribonucleic acid.