This chapter aims to connect theories and perspectives of learning with classroom practices that support learning. In particular, constructivist and socio-cultural perspectives of teaching and learning are described and critiqued. The ground has shifted within the constructivist perspective. There is substantial critique of the earlier constructivist and conceptual change literature, pointing out the narrowness of this purely conceptual view of learning and the excessive focus on the learner at the expense of the teacher and classroom. Conceptual change views of learning are underpinned by the idea that learning involves complex changes to students’ knowledge from alternative conceptions to scientific conceptions. The research into children’s conceptions raised questions about the nature of student learning. Learning about chemical reactions, for example, involves students learning about concepts such as bonding, equations and electron transfer using many different types of scientific languages, including text, models, diagrams and symbols.