The presence and prevalence of trauma and adversity in the histories of people in prison present an important factor in understanding the trajectory to offending. Trauma and adversity demand survival responses which become learnt ways of living. We propose that these survival responses give rise to the psychological characteristics conceptualised in the forensic literature as criminogenic needs (or dynamic risk factors for offending). Changes to these criminogenic needs are a key target of rehabilitative efforts and we argue that for long-lasting change to occur, the survival responses that underpin them need to be addressed. However, an individual is only likely to succeed at changing their survival responses in a stable non-threatening context in which they are no longer needed. This chapter explores the traumatic origins of criminogenic needs and the subsequent experience of imprisonment, arguing that the prison environment can act as a threat-based context for some, which demands previously learnt survival responses not only from those living, but also those working in prison. As such, the prison environment can be viewed as is a co-produced (staff and prison resident) threat-sensitive context where survival (physical and psychological) is the priority, creating conditions for (re)traumatisation and restricting the ability of residents to engage with, and benefit from rehabilitative efforts. We examine the possible pragmatic responses to facilitate context change in the prison environment, focusing on the concept of Procedural Justice as an opportunity to intervene with and modify a threat-based environment to create optimum conditions for rehabilitation efforts to flourish.