This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book offers a selection of most acknowledged ethical theories developed and applied within Translation Studies. It traces the origins of Chinese discourse on translation ethics in the long tradition of Confucian ethics. The book illustrates the way the ethics of translation was conceived in “socialist” theories of translation, in particular, in those developed in the Soviet Union and the German Democratic Republic. It focuses on the various and overlapping ethical questions facing the professional translator, such as professionalization and the dynamics between the professional and personal ethics. The book provides an overview of the key Translation Studies texts discussing ethical issues arising from translations of literary texts and addresses several ethical issues connected to the publishing and re-publishing of literary translations. It presents the way how globalization influences ethical concerns experienced by different stakeholders in the translation industry at various levels.