Heritage destruction, including cultural appropriation, reconfiguration, and partial or complete erasure of cultural property, occurs across societies and in political systems characterised by different structures of power. This chapter introduces the concept of heritage predation as a lens with which to analyse heritage destruction, which is defined as the process of exploiting cultural resources for political purposes. From centralised states to fragmented, weak polities, heritage predation offers a lens into the relationship between centres of power and, on the other hand, what happens over time to cultural property and other forms of heritage. The practice of usurping cultural heritage, including identities and symbols of the past, is explored through case studies from Iraq and India, where political groups vie to alter heritage in ways conducive to their interests.