From 1822 forward, Mahmud II appointed the ablest loyal men around him as his advisers. He kept a tight rein on state affairs, rapidly removing those who opposed him or who proved unable to carry out his orders. Galib was secretly informed of Mahmud’s plans for the elimination of the Janissaries and recommended the appointment of a more seasoned soldier than himself for the task. During the Mahmud II era, the empire experienced a steep rise in inflation that was greater than any other moment in its history. Prices increased 12 to 15 times between the late eighteenth century and 1850, in part because of ruinous fiscal practices. Officer training would ultimately serve as the single most important modernizing force of the empire. In this period of the transformation, however, rivalries and factionalism remained the order of the day, and are generally accorded to be the reasons for failure of the Asakir-i Mansure army against Mehmed Ali’s army in Anatolia.