This part introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters. The part examines the traditionally crucial input for many struggling countries – official development assistance (ODA) – and its governance architecture as essential helping assets for improving life in many low-income countries. It argues that even before the pandemic, the aid system was reeling from a dearth of relevance, legitimacy, and effectiveness. The part examines the critically important issue of data governance in the unfolding of what they call the “Fourth Industrial Revolution.” It explores the tensions in, and competing approaches to, the global governance of data and the enormity of the challenges that lie therein. The part offers a compelling examination of global attempts to control the trade in and consumption of illicit drugs. It provides two key and related insights for future problem-solving in this and other arenas.