Major changes at the global level will have profound implications for future food systems governance. Climate change, widening economic inequities, and an increasingly fragmented global institutional landscape for food governance present challenges that will affect the capacity of food systems to provide safe and nutritious food for the world’s population over the coming decades. The eruption of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 marked a sharp disruption to food systems worldwide, which shone a light on these problems while also injecting new urgency to charting a path forward for more effective global food security governance. However, despite a broad consensus that a major transformation of food systems is needed, there are heated debates over what exactly such a transformation should resemble as well as the appropriate role for global governance in shaping it. This chapter examines the challenges these trends present to the future governance of global food security and sustainability.