Life on land depends on the health and sustainability of ecosystems. Rapid and extensive human impact, however, has resulted in depletion and degradation of biological diversity at extraordinarily high rates. The COVID-19 pandemic brought into stark relief the fragility of the web of life, the importance of the relationship between people and nature, and the risk of disease spillover from wildlife to humans. Responses to the pandemic highlight the significance of governance mechanisms and the imperative for intentional investment in the health of the planet. This chapter explains the evolution and potential futures of biodiversity governance and analyzes the interactions among the existing legal regime for biodiversity, the Sustainable Development Goals, and the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework. It draws lessons from the successes and challenges of past governance efforts and explores future paths that promote planetary and human health.