This chapter examines the social influence of the school setting on athletic development, and focuses largely on physical education (PE) and school sport for those aged 5 to 18 years, in ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ education. The framework demonstrates that environmental catalysts, mental catalysts, and wellbeing provide input to all three aspects of the development journey. The investment of time and money on the development journey from a PE and school sport perspective is influenced by government policy, school/district budgeting, facilities available, and the type of school attended. Optimal development of identity requires exploring a variety of activities and interacting with people from different backgrounds which provides opportunities for young people to “make informed decisions about their personal values, interests and skills” and “develop coping strategies and confidence in their abilities to be successful in adult life”.