Quantitative research comes from the assumption that behaviour can be observed and measured objectively. It involves the scientific study of phenomena, using statistical techniques to analyse numerical data, with the aim of generalising the results to a population. Quantitative research is based on deductive reasoning, whereby an explicit hypothesis is stated and then tested empirically. Qualitative research comes from the assumption that it is the meanings of experience that are important and, as such, qualitative researchers are interested in gathering data that illuminates personal meaning and experiences. Qualitative research is based on inductive reasoning, whereby the researcher will start with observations and data collection regarding a phenomenon, then look for patterns to generate a theory. Cross-sectional designs are used to compare several non-manipulated groups at a single time point.