This chapter covers phenomena that show how verbal labels can distort memory and judgment. In typical labeling studies, participants see visual stimuli accompanied by a verbal label and later try to recall or recognize the visual stimulus. Results often show that the remembered visual stimulus is distorted towards the verbal label. In a different type of study, participants themselves generate verbal descriptions of a visual stimulus. Subsequent tests then often show that memory is impaired relative to a control group. This is called “verbal overshadowing” which, however, is a somewhat fragile effect. It depends on a number of factors (like material and procedure) whether it is observed. In other cases, verbalization was found to augment memory. Labeling has a number of important implications for applied questions, most of all in forensic settings and in consumer research.