The marriage of Leonor Plantagenet to Alfonso VIII of Castile expanded Castilian ties to western France and England and consolidated the identity of newly independent Castile as separate from the kingdom of León. Although few commissions are documented as theirs, the arrival of a Plantagenet queen clearly had an impact. The last quarter of the 12th century saw an influx of English artists working in projects in all media throughout Castile. Spanish and English painters collaborated on manuscripts, while architecture was designed to recall the churches of western France. Wall-paintings, apparently by English artists, are attributable to this time. Artists integrated Islamic motifs and techniques into manuscripts, metalwork, and sculpture for Christian clients. As part of this program for distinctive nationhood, Castile adopted a castle as its heraldic symbol alongside the Plantagenet leopard. With this influx of foreign art, ideas, and artists into their realm, Alfonso and Leonor enriched the visual language of Castile, granting the kingdom a clear, identifiable artistic identity. This paper focuses on works that may be characterized as Romanesque.