This chapter addresses the role of Asian material culture, especially Chinese silk and porcelain, in the definition of Hispanic elites’ identity in Castile and New Spain during the seventeenth century. This work explores the reasons why the Hispanic-American elites of New Spain purchased, displayed and used more Asian products than their Castilian counterparts living in the entrepôt of Seville. Interpretation is based not only on an analysis of factors owing to supply, such as the price of products, but also on cultural factors owing to demand, such as taste and fashion.